Groundnut is a type of bean that grows well in warm climates. It is called a nut but is not a nut, it's a type of bean.

Groundnut is a type of seed that is used to make oil. It is important because it is a source of protein, and it is grown mostly in India. In some states, groundnut is the most important crop.


Groundnut grows best in soils that are sandy, well-drained, and have a pH of 6.5-7. Sandy soils are best since they are rich in fertility and don't suffer from pod development problems like soils that are too heavy or clay-rich. Spanish or Runner varieties are best suited for these soils since they have a better germination rate. The ideal temperature for groundnut growth is 31 degrees Celsius.


TG37A: The variety is suitable for the spring season. The shelling out turn is 65% and the average weight of 100 kernels are 42.5gm. The kernels are spherical in shape and pink in color. It gives an average yield of 12.3qtl/acre of pods.

PG-1: It is a spreading variety recommended for cultivation under rain-fed conditions in Punjab. Ready to harvest in 130 days. It has a shelling percentage of 69. It yields about 6-8 quintals per acre. Seeds contain 49 percent oil.

C-501 (Virginia group): It is a semi-spreading variety recommended for cultivation in sandy loam and loamy soils under irrigated conditions where spreading varieties do not grow well. It yields about 10 quintals per acre. It matures in about 125-130 days. It has 68 percent shelling out turn and 48 percent oil content.

M548: Grown in sandy areas of the place with certainly dispersed rainfall of about 550 mm in July, mid-august as well as September or simply under deterrent irrigation. Ready to harvest in 123 days. The crude oil content obtained is 52.4%.
M-335: It is a spreading variety recommended for cultivation in Punjab. It matures in 125 days. It has a shelling percentage of 67. It yields about 8-10 quintals per acre. Seeds contain 49 percent oil. It is recommended for sowing under irrigated conditions in Punjab.
M-522: It is a spreading variety for sowing under irrigated conditions in Punjab. It matures in about 115 days. It has a shelling out turn of 68 percent. Seeds contain 50.7 percent oil. Pods are medium bold in size with mostly two kernels. Its yield potential is 9 quintals per acre.
M-37: Crop size is 25cm, a scattering kind variety with trailing divisions, foliage is big in dimensions, densely organized as well as deep greenish in shade. Pods are 1 to 2 seeded hardly ever 3-seeded. Shelling is 69%.


After harvesting crops from previous seasons, farmers plough the land twice to break up the soil and make it fertile. They may also need to plough it a third time if it's a rainfed crop, in the early summer. They can use a harrow or cultivator to work the land for planting. If the land is heavily infested with perennial weeds, farmers may need to deep plough the soil. For irrigated crops, farmers will make beds of convenient size depending on the topography and nature of the irrigation source. They will then add chicken manure, farm yard manure, or well-decomposed cow dung 1 month before sowing. This will help to improve the soil's structure and help the plants grow.


Time of sowing
Sow the rainfed crop with the advent of monsoon in the last week of June or in the Ist week of July. Complete sowing as early as possible as delay sowing results in a reduction in yield. Where an irrigation facility is an available sow kharif groundnut from April end to May end.  Spacing
The spacing to be adopted depends upon the type of variety. i.e., for semi-spreading variety (M 522) use spacing of 30cm between the rows and 22.5 cm between plants, and for bunchy type varieties (SG 99, SG84) use a spacing of 30x15 cm.

Sowing Depth
Healthy and well developed pods should be hand shelled with suitable groundnut sheer about fortnight before sowing. Pods are sown with help of seed drill at depth of 8-10 cm at a seed rate of 38-40 kg/acre.

Method of sowing
seeds are sown with help of seed drill.

ICRISAT method: Polythene mulching has been attributed as one of the major improved cultivation practices for enhanced productivity of groundnut in China. When grown under polythene mulch system, groundnut matures about 10 days earlier than under non-mulched condition. Polythene mulching increases the soil temperature by retaining the heat from the sun. The increased accumulated temperature shortens the crop period. During the hot season it also protects the soil from direct sunlight.

In this technology, Broad beds and furrows are used for groundnut cultivation. Environment of Broad beds and furrows system is favourable for the development of groundnut pods, by doing little modification in the size, beds are formed along with polyethylene film mulched. Make beds of 60 cm width and leave 15 cm on the either side for the furrows. In a plot size of 4.5 m x 6.0 m, five beds can be made. After the formation of the bed and fertilizer application, spread black polythene sheet (90 cm width) over the soil surface. Polyethylene sheet of Seven micron @20kg/acre is required. Holes can be made at required spacing of 30 x10 cm before spreading of the sheets. The seed requirement is similar to normal groundnut cultivation 


To make sure your garden gets the nutrients it needs, it's important to spray the solution regularly. This can be done by soaking DAP (ammonium sulphate) and Borax (boron) in water overnight, then filtering the mixture the next day. 16 liters of the mixture can be used, diluted with 234 liters of water, and sprayed on 25th and 35th day after sowing. Planofix (a soil amendment) can also be mixed while spraying.



  • Pest and their control

Aphid : 

It can be controlled by spraying of rogor @ 300ml/acre or Imidacloprid 17.8 % SL@ 80 ml/acre or Methyl demeton 25% EC @ 300 ml/acre as soon as the symptoms are seen.

White grub:

For effective management of white grub plough the field twice during May-June. It exposes the beetles resting in the soil. Do not delay crop sowing. Before sowing treat the seed with Chlorpyriphos 20E C@12.5 ml per kg kernels. For beetle control, spray with carbaryl @900 gm/100 Ltr of water. The spray should be repeated after every rainfall till the middle of July. Apply Phorate @ 4 kg or carbofuran @ 13 kg per acre in the soil at or before sowing.

Hairy caterpillar: Set up 3-4 light traps immediately after receipts of rains. Collect and destroy egg masses in the cropped area. Avoid migration of larvae by digging a trench 30 cm deep and 25 cm wide with perpendicular sides around the infested fields. Distribute small balls of poison bait in the field during evening hours. To prepare poison bait, mix 10 kg of rice bran, 1 kg jaggery and one litre Quinalphos. To control young larvae, do dusting of Carbaryl or Quinalphos at 300 ml/acre. To control grown up caterpillar, spray with 200 ml of Dichlorvos 100 EC @200 Ltr water/acre.

Groundnut leaf miner:

Set up light traps @ 5/acre. Apply Dimethoate 30EC@300 ml/acre or Malathion 50 EC @400ml/acre or Methyl demeton 25% EC@ 200 ml/acre.

Groundnut - Protection

Posted 3 weeks ago

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