We know you’re looking for guidance on Banana Farming which helps you to get better yield and more profit. So here we have come to help you with this guide which will give you more insight into the type of soil it requires, suitable climatic conditions, number of irrigations, fertilizer doses, pests and diseases of banana and their control measures, etc.
It enables the banana growers to learn better techniques in Banana farming, from land preparation to the harvesting of Banana fruit.
Table of Contents
Importance of Banana farming in India
Varieties of Bananas Cultivated in India
Best soil type for Banana farming
Suitable Climatic Conditions
Tissue Cultured Seedlings
Methods and number of Irrigation required
Recommended doses and sources Fertilizers
Important Insect-Pests & Diseases and their control measures
Banana is used worldwide for different purposes, not only the fruit but also the leaf and stem fibers of the Banana plant is useful. It is the only tropical fruit that is exported in large amounts.
Unlike most other fruits, Bananas don’t have a growing season. Cultivation of Bananas can give you consistent income throughout the year, which is why they are an economically important fruit crop in India.
There are nearly 1000 types of Bananas grown in different countries. The most commonly grown is Cavendish Banana.
Commonly grown varieties of bananas and their characteristics are listed below.
|Varieties of Banana||Shape||Size||Flavor||Color|
|Cavendish banana||Long and slightly curved||About 7 inches||Sweet with creamy||Immature- Green,
Ripe- Bright golden yellow
|Burro Banana||Shorter and squarer than Cavendish||About 6 inches||Lemony Banana flavor||Immature- Dark green
Ripe- Deep yellow with black spots
|Manzano Banana||Small and slight curve||About 4 inches||Sweet with pineapple flavor||Yellow
Ripe- skin covered with black spots
|Red Banana||Shorter and squarer than other bananas||About 6 inches||Sweet with a slight raspberry flavor||Purple or Maroon-red|
|Blue Java Banana||Small and rectangular-like||About 7 inches||Sweet with slight vanilla flavor||Silver blue matte|
Banana plants need well-drained and fertile soil. Loamy soil, a mixture of clay sand and humus is ideal for your Banana plantation. Growing Bananas in poorly aerated, ill-drained soil might kill your Banana tree.
Get your soil tested before starting Banana farming. If the pH of your soil is in the range of 6.5 – 7.5 and is rich in organic matter then nothing like it.
Banana crops are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions, however tropical to subtropical climates having 70 – 75% relative humidity and a temperature range of 15- 30 degrees Celsius are recommended.
Heavy storms, frost, and extremely low or high temperatures might result in abnormal or malformed fruits.
It is not possible to propagate bananas from seeds. The two ways of propagation of Bananas are; one from suckers and the other from tissue-cultured seedlings.
Using suckers includes selecting a sucker from a banana plant, defoliating and removing it from its mother, and finally uprooting it. The cons of using suckers are non-uniform crop growth, infections from pathogens, and prolonged harvesting.
Tissue culture is a process of cloning and culturing vegetative plant parts which are taken from disease-free areas of the mother banana plant. Seedling grown through this procedure is known as micropropagated seedlings. This method is more efficient compared to the former.
You can plant Bananas throughout the year, however, it is good to start planting in May and June or between September to October and avoid planting during the extreme summer and winter seasons.
For Banana cultivation, make sure you keep the soil moist always. As the Banana plant is shallow-rooted, it requires a high amount of water. Micro-irrigation methods, especially drip or sprinkler irrigation are recommended for banana plants.
It is recommended to irrigate your Banana field at an interval of 4-5 days in summer and at an interval of 7-8 days in winter. Do not irrigate the field during the rainy season as excess water can affect your plant health.
You can adopt drip irrigation to use water efficiently. It also helps in boosting crop yield by 23 – 32%.
The banana crop is a heavy feeder crop, their shallow roots make them respond well to supplement nutrients. It requires Farm Yard Manure, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, and some micronutrients. The quantity of fertilizer to be used varies for different types of Bananas. Usually, 300 Kg N, 230-250 Kg P, and 250-300 kg K should be given through Urea, DAP/SSP, and MoP per ha.
The application of micronutrients is generally provided with foliar spraying. Foliar spray of ZnSO4 (0.5%) + FeSO4 (0.2%) + CuSO4 (0.2%) + H3BO3 (0.1%) at 3rd, 5th, and 7th month after planting (MOP) are generally recommended to increase the yield of banana fruits.
Farmers also adopt fertigation to boost the yield and lessen the loss of nutrients from the soil. Fertigation is a process that combines fertilization and irrigation where fertilizer is added to an irrigation system.
It is important to protect your Banana plant from pests like thrips, banana beetle, and banana aphids, and diseases like Panama wilt, leaf spot, shoot rot, etc. You can achieve this by using Neemastra or Agneyastra periodically.
Weed management is the process of removing weeds to improve your Banana crops’ yield. An effective weed management program includes:
Mulching is a process of covering the ground with plastic sheets or planting any dwarf crops to cover the soil that prevents weed growth while not affecting banana production.
The herbicide should be used before the weeds have started producing seeds and when the climatic conditions are suitable.
When you plant a banana plantation, you can plant other short-term crops like beans, soya beans, and groundnuts to avoid weeds. This is referred to as intercropping.
You can harvest your Bananas at the 3/4th maturity stage for export purposes and harvest them at full maturity for local markets.
Leave 2 ft of peduncle on banana bunches while harvesting.
Banana cultivation is high yielding and more profitable. So, what are you waiting for? Start your cultivation now.